Absolute Beginner > Lesson 4
Lesson 4. Final Consonants (받침) #3 – Friend Consonants (ㄳ, ㄵ, ㄶ, ㄺ, ㄻ, ㄼ, ㄾ, ㄿ, ㅀ, ㅄ)
In today’s lesson, we will learn about the final consonants that consist of two consonants in it.
삶 has two final consonants: ㄹ and ㅁ
닭 has also two final consonants: ㄹ and ㄱ
As there is no specific name for such type of final consonant, we’re gonna call it “friend consonants” in this lesson.
There are 11 types of friend consonant.
ㄳ – ㄵ – ㄶ – ㄼ – ㄽ* – ㄿ *– ㄾ – ㅀ – ㅄ – ㄺ – ㄻ
*ㄽ and ㄿ is rarely used.
Let’s split them up into two groups where
1) The main consonant is the first one: ㄳ – ㄵ – ㄶ – ㄼ – ㄽ – ㄾ – ㅀ – ㅄ
2) The main consonant is the second one: ㄺ – ㄻ
When you read a word that contains the final consonants in the first group, you read the first consonant as a final consonant..
When you read a word with consonants from the second group, you read the second consonant as a final consonant. .
For example, these are the words that have friend consonants in the first group.
넋 [nuhk] – ㄱ 받침 sound
앉 [ahn] – ㄴ 받침 sound
않 [ahn] – ㄴ 받침 sound
넓 [nuhl] – ㄹ 받침 sound
핥 [hal] – ㄹ 받침 sound
잃 [il] – ㄹ 받침 sound
없 [ob] – ㅂ 받침 sound
As you can see from how they’re pronounced, the 받침(final consonant) sound is based on the first consonant of the friend consonant.
Let’s look at the words that have friend consonants in the second group:
닭 [dak]: chicken – ㄱ 받침
삶 [sam] : life – ㅁ 받침
As you can see from the pronunciation, the 받침(final consonant) sound is based on the second consonant of the friend consonant.
This is the general rule of how to pronounce words with friend consonants.
However, when these words are followed by certain consonants in the next letter, consonant assimilation happens.
닭 [dak] > 닭이 [dal-gi 달기 (O) / dagi 다기 (X)]
닭 가슴살 [dak-ka-seum-sal 닥까슴살] – ㄱ 받침 + ㄱ consonant produces ㄲ sound
닭 날개 [당날개] – when ㄱ 받침 meets ㄴconsonant, it changes to the sound of ㅇ 받침.
닭 모이 [당모이] – when ㄱ 받침 meets ㅁ consonant, it changes to the sound of ㅇ받침.
닭 한 마리 [다칸마리] – ㄱ 받침 and ㅎmake the sound of ㅋ.
삶 한 번 [사만번] – ㅁ받침 and ㅎ combined make the sound of ㅁ.
삶은 [살믄] – ㄹ 받침 stays in the first letter’s pronunciation, and ㅁ 받침 combines with ㅇ and gets pronounced in the next letter.
넋 놓고 [넝노코] – ㄱ 받침 and ㄴ make the sound of ㅇ.
앉다 [안따] – when ㅈ받침 is combined with ㄷ, it gives a more pressured sound of ㄷ, creating ㄸ sound.
앉게 [안께] – when ㅈ받침 is combined with ㄱ, it gives a more pressured sound of ㄷ, creating ㄲ sound.
앉니 [안니] – ㄴ consonant sound is not affected by any 받침 sound, and therefore stays intact. ㅈ받침 becomes silent.
앉아 [안자] – ㅈ받침 is combined withㅏ.
않다 [안타] – ㅎ받침 in combination with ㄷ creates the sound of ㅌ.
않고 [안코] – ㅎ받침 in combination withㄱ creates the sound of ㅋ.
않지 [안치] – ㅎ받침 and ㅈ in combination create the sound of ㅊ.
않아 [아나] – ㅎ 받침 and ㅇ in combination does nothing (ㅎ받침 stays silent)
않나 [안나] – ㄴ consonant sound doesn’t change in combination with any 받침 sound.
넓게 [널께] ㅂ puts more pressure on ㄱ sound so it’s pronounced as ㄲ.
넓다 [널따] ㅂ puts more pressure on ㄷ sound so it’s pronounced as ㄸ.
없네 [엄네] – ㅂ받침 and ㄴ create the sound of ㅁ받침
옳지 않아 [올치 아나]: It’s not right
앉기 싫다 [안끼 실타]: I don’t want to sit down
닭고기 없어 [닥고기 업서]: There’s no chicken meat.
초심 잃지마 [초심 일치마]: Don’t lose your first mind.
넓은 바다를 넋 놓고 보다 [너븐 바다를 넝노코 보다] – to stare at the wide ocean while lost in thought