Beginner 2 > Lesson 7
Lesson 7. Verb’s honorific form #2 (-세요 ending, -시다 verb)
The ‘-시다’ form:
This form is used when you intend to show respect towards the Subject of the sentence.
Ex. 우리 할머니께서* 곧 집에 오실 거예요 = My grandmother will come home soon.
*께서 is the Honorific Particle form i.e. a more polite form of the Subject-marking Particles 이/가.
Following are few examples of Regular Base Verbs in Korean and their Honorific Base Verb counterparts:
이다 (to have; exist) → 이시다.
오다 (to come) → 오시다.
가다 (to go) → 가시다.
웃다 (to laugh) → 웃으시다.
울다 (to cry) → 우시다*.
친절하다 (to be kind) → 친절하시다.
CONJUGATING HONORIFIC BASE VERBS IN PAST TENSE:
Conjugating Honorific Base Verbs in Past tense is the same as conjugating regular verbs whose verb stem ends in ‘ㅣ’ vowel in the Past tense.
Ex. 마시다 (to drink) = 마셨어.
Ex. 만지다 (to drink) = 만졌어.
CONJUGATING HONORIFIC BASE VERBS IN FUTURE TENSE:
Just like the Past Tense, Conjugating Honorific Base Verbs in Future tense is the same as conjugating regular verbs whose verb stem ends in ‘ㅣ’ vowel in the Future tense.
Ex. 마시다 (to drink) = 마실 거예요.
Ex. 만지다 (to drink) = 만질 거예요.
When Honorific Base Verbs are conjugated in Present Tense, they utilise the previously learnt ‘-세요’.
Regular Base Verb
Honorific Base verb
Honorific Present verb
Honorific Past verb
Honorific Future verb
이다 (to have; exist)
오다 (to come)
가다 (to go)
웃다 (to laugh)
울다 (to cry)
친절하다 (to be kind)
However, certain verbs in Korean have their own separate Honorific Forms:
Honorific Base Verb
Honorific Present Verb
Honorific Past Verb
Honorific Future Verb
먹다 (to eat)
아프다 (to sleep)
자다 (to sleep)
말하다 (to speak; talk)
There are also verbs (most notably, 있다 and 주다) that have TWO honorific forms and are used in different context.
있다 Verb in Honorific Form:
있다 Verb has several meanings in Korean.
1. 있다 when it means ‘to stay’ in a sentence,
있다 → 계시다.
Ex. 안녕히 계세요 = Goodbye.
(Here 안녕히 계세요 literally means: ‘stay/be peacefully.’)
Ex. 제프의 아버지는 집에 계세요 = Jeff’s father is home.
2. 있다 when it means ‘to have’ in a sentence,
있다 → 있으시다*.
*Note that 계시다 cannot be used in this context!
Ex. 남자친구 있으세요? = Do you have a boyfriend?
주다 Verb in Honorific Form:
주다 Verb when used in Honorific Form is used in the 2 below ways:
1. 주시다 : used to show respect to the giver.
Ex. 커피 한 잔 주세요 = Please give me a cup of coffee.
Ex. 저한테 주세요 = Please give it to me.
Ex. 선생님께서 저희에게 주셨어요. = The teacher gave it to us.
2. 드리다 : used to show respect to the receiver.
Ex. 저는 선생님께 선물을 드려요 = I give the teacher a gift.
Ex. 할머니께 이 음식을 드리세요. = Please give this food to grandma.