Beginner 3 > Lesson 18
Lesson 18. For, in order to” | noun 을/를 위해(서), V-기 위해(서), 위한
When expressing your reasoning for doing or having something, the word 위해 can be used. It is combined with nouns and verbs slightly differently, but both come to have the meaning of “for the sake of…” or more simply, “for”.
|을/를 위해(서)||기 위해(서)|
|너를 위해 – for you||공부하기 위해(서) – for the sake of studying|
Noun + 을/를 위해
Here, the noun attached to the construction can be a person, a thing or a goal.
너를 위해 준비했어 – I prepared this for you.
시험 합격을 위해 열심히 공부하고 있어요 – I’m studying hard for the sake of passing the test.
방탄소년단은 “작은 것들을 위한 시”를 썼어요 – BTS wrote “a poem for the small things (Boy With Luv).”
할머니를 위해 어느 기념품을 살까요? – Which (one of these) souvenirs should I buy for my grandmother?
피자 요리를 위해 어떤 재료가 필요하니? – What kind of ingredients to you need for cooking pizza?
건강을 위해 수술을 받았어요 – I got/underwent the surgery for my health.
Verb + 기 위해(서)
Again, the verb attached to this construction would act as the goal of the sentence. However, because of this, it can be more natural to translate the phrase as “in order to verb” or “to verb” instead of “for the sake of verb”.
시험에 합격하기 위해서 열심히 공부하고 있어요 – I’m studying hard to pass the test.
아침에 일찍 일어나기 위해서 알람을 맞췄어요 – I set the alarm in order to wake up early in the morning.
교통 체증을 피하기 위해서 매일 걸어서 출근해요 – I walk to work every day to avoid traffic congestion.
남동생을 돌보기 위해 친구랑 계획을 취소했어 – I cancelled my plans with my friends to take care of my younger brother.
NB: -기 is used here for verb nominalisation and the 위해서 is commonly shortened to 위해.
When used with adjectives, it is common to use the “present tense + 지” form since it is your goal to get to/reach that state (to become adjective). Therefore, the “to become adjective” form is used, and it can be more directly translated as this or instead more simply as “to be”.
따뜻해지기 위해서 이불을 덮었어요 – I covered myself in a blanket in order to become warm.
남자친구가 건강해지기 위해 짠 음식을 안 먹어 – My boyfriend doesn’t eat salty food in order to become healthy.
Difference between –기 위해서 and (으)려고
Because of this construction’s meaning, it can be used in the same way as (으)려고, but sounds a bit more formal and makes the goal sound more important/heavy than (으)려고.
As well as this, 기 위해(서) can be used with imperatives and suggestion (e.g., Let’s…) clauses whereas (으)려고 cannot. These clauses include:
Present tense + 야 해요 – (I) have to…
(으)ㅂ시다 – Let’s…
(으)세요 – Polite imperative
(으)ㄹ까요? – Shall we…?
아침에 일찍 일어나기 위해서 알람을 맞췄어요 – I set the alarm (in order) to wake up early in the morning.
아침에 일찍 일어나려고 알람을 맞췄어요 – I set the alarm (in order) to wake up early in the morning.
시험에 합격하기 위해서 열심히 공부하고 있어요 – I’m studying to pass the test.
시험에 합격하려고 열심히 공부하고 있어요 – I’m studying to pass the test.
돈을 벌기 위해서 열심히 일하세요 – Work hard to make money.
돈을 벌려고 열심히 일하세요. (X)