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Beginner 1 > Lesson 24

Lesson 24. Noun 도, 또한 (also, as well, too, even)

1. Noun + 도 + positive verb : also Noun / as well as Noun


A: 저는 액션 영화를 너무 좋아해요. – I liked action movies.

B: 저요 / 나 – Me too.


However, you cannot use 도 to connect two nouns to mean “and.” For that, (이)랑 / 하고  / 와/과 particles should be used. 

엄마가 요리를 잘해요. 아빠요. – My mom is good at cooking. My dad as well.

엄마가 아빠도 요리를 잘해요 (X)  엄마 아빠가 요리를 잘해요 (O) . – My mom and dad are good at cooking.


저는 오렌지를 많이 샀고 바나나 많이 샀어요. – I bought a lot of oranges and bananas too.

저는 오렌지를 바나나도 많이 샀어요. (X) 저는 오렌지하고 바나나를 많이 샀어요. (O) – I bought a lot of oranges and bananas. 


Let’s look at more example sentences/dialogues using the particle 도. 

A: 수업 끝나고 밥 같이 먹을래요? – Shall we go to eat after class?

B: 지수 가요? – Is Jisoo going too?

A: 네. – Yes.

B: 그럼 저 갈게요! – Then I will too.


오늘 비가 와요. – It’s raining today as well. (implies that it rained the previous day)


Note in the above sentences that you don’t need to put topic, subject or object particles (은/는, 이/가, 을/를) after 도.

[도 after subjects/topics]

고양이를 좋아해요. – I also like cats.

그 학생 수학을 잘 해요. – That student is also good at math.

내 남동생 밥을 많이 먹었어. – My younger brother ate a lot too.


[도 after objects]

저는 고양이 좋아해요. I like cats as well (as other animals.)

그 학생은 수학 잘 해요. – That student is good at math as well (as other things.)

내 남동생은 밥 많이 먹었어요. – My younger brother ate a lot of rice too (as well as other things.)


You can figure out whether the noun marked by 도 is a subject or object in a sentence, by context.


A: 저는 겨울을 제일 좋아해요. – I like winter the most.
B: 저희 엄마요. – My mom (likes winter the most) as well. – Subject.

A: 우리 반에서 지수만 A를 받았죠? – Jisoo was the only one who got an A in our class, right?
B: 지호요. – Jiho (got an A) too. – Subject.

저는 강아지를 키워요. 고양이요. – I have a dog. (I have) a cat as well. – Object.

한국어를 공부해요. – I (in addition to other people who learn Korean) learn Korean too. – Subject.

저는 한국어 공부해요. – I learn Korean too (in addition to other languages I learn). – Object.

제 친구 춤을 잘 춰요. – My friend (in addition to other people) is good at dancing too. – Subject.

제 친구는 춤 잘 춰요. – My friend is good at dancing too (in addition to the other things he is good at).  – Object.

그 시험을 통과했어요. – I passed the exam too (in addition to other people who also passed it). – Subject.

저는 그 시험 통과했어요. – I passed that exam too (in addition to other exams that I passed). – Object.


However, that doesn’t mean 도 cannot be used with any other particles. Except for topic/subject/object markers, it can follow other particles.

For example:

1) 나한테 (to/from me) > 나한테 (to/from me as well)
지호가 어제 너한테 전화했어? 나한테 전화했어. Did Jiho call you yesterday? He called me as well.

2) 주말에 (on the weekend) > 주말에 (on the weekend as well)
저는 주말에 시험 공부를 열심히 해야 돼요. – I have to study for the exam hard even on weekends.

3) 집에서 (at home) > 집에서 (at home as well)
저는 잠을 좋아해요. 집에서 잠만 자요. I like sleep. Even at home, all I do it sleep.

4) 친구랑 / 친구하고 / 친구와 (with a friend) > 친구랑  / 친구하고 / 친구와 (with a friend as well)
어제 너무 외로워서 엄마랑 얘기했어요. 친구랑도요. I was feeling so lonely yesterday, so I talked with mom. Also with my friend. 

You can notice from the above sentences that you put 도 after the main particle.

(We’ll learn more in-depth about each particle used above (에, 에서, 한테) in the next coming lessons.)


*Another word with the same meaning as 도 would be 또한.

또한 means “also” or “in addition” and can be used after a noun, as well as after a whole sentence as a sentence connector.

It sounds more formal than 도, so it’s rarely used in spoken sentences.


지수는 영어를 잘해요. 저 또한 잘해요. (=저도 잘해요.)  Jisoo speaks good English. I as well. 

날씨가 추워지고 있습니다. 또한 눈도 많이 내리고 있습니다. The weather is getting colder. In addition, snow is coming more often.


2. Noun + 도 + negative verb : not even noun 

저는 너무 가난해서 1000원 없어요. I am so broke that I don’t even have 1000 won.

저는 너무 바빠서 전화 못 받아요. I am too busy that I cannot even answer the phone. 

엄마는 요즘 너무 게을러서 설거지 안 해요. Mom is so lazy these days that she doesn’t even do the dishes.