Beginner 2 > Lesson 12
Lesson 12. Verb’s Modifier Form
First, let’s rewind how to use adjectives to describe a noun.
First of all, we need to take adjective’s stem and then put either “ㄴ” or “은”, depending on the last syllable of the stem.
Adjective Stem + ㄴ/은
행복한 여자 – A happy woman (행복하다 (to be happy) > 행복하 + ㄴ)
작은 아기 – A small baby (작다 (to be small) > 작 + 은)
즐거운 일생 – A joyful life (즐겁다 (to be joyful) > 즐거 + 운)
*When an adjective ends in “ㅂ”, it gets deleted and then we add “운” to the stem.
긴 머리 – Long hair (길다 (to be long) > 길다 > 긴)
**when adjectives end in “ㄹ”, “ㄹ” changes to “ㄴ”.
- Modifying a Noun with a Verb in the Present Tense
Now, let’s learn how to modify nouns with verbs.
For example, when a verb modifies a noun you can say:
The woman I love > 내가 사랑하는 여자
The man reading a book > 책을 읽는 남자
People who plant trees > 나무를 심는 사람들
The reason I love you > 내가 너를 사랑하는 이유
As you can notice, there’s a common pattern in these examples. The modified noun always comes last.
So, to make a sentence with a noun modified by a verb, you can use this construction:
Sentence (with the subject, object, and adverb, etc.) ending in a Verb (Stem) + 는 + Noun
매일 한국어를 공부하는 학생 – A student who studies Korean every day
내가 일하는 회사 – The company that I work at
일찍 일어나는 새 – A bird that wakes up early (or, An early bird)
채소를 좋아하지 않는 아이* – A child who doesn’t like vegetables
*in this example, the verb “좋아하다” combines with a negative ending “~지 않다” and then we make it in a modifier form using “는”.
It is also possible to apply the same rule to Present Progressive. Let’s look at the examples:
엄마를 기다리는 아이들 – The children who are waiting for mom (a regular present form is used)
= 엄마를 기다리고 있는 아이들 – The children who are waiting for mom (here, we combined “Verb Stem + ~고 있다 + 는”)
점심을 먹는 사람들 or 점심을 먹고 있는 사람들 – People eating lunch
자는 아이 or 자고 있는 아이 – A sleeping baby
You can also use this construction with Noun 이/가 있다 or 없다 verb.
창문이 있는 방 – A room with a window
창문이 없는 방 – A room with no window
끝이 없는 게임 – An endless game
There are also irregular verbs that require a different conjugation.
When a verb stem ends in “ㄹ”, you need to delete “ㄹ” and add “는” right after.
A crying baby > 우는 아기 (울다 (to cry) > 우 +는) > or 울고 있는 아기
The person I know > 내가 아는 사람 (알다 (to know) > 아 + 는)
The person that knows me > 나를 (or 날) 아는 사람 (알다 (to know) > 아 + 는)
Foreigners who live in Korea > 한국에 사는 외국인 (살다 (to live) > 사 + 는)
A making method > 만드는 방법 (만들다 (to make) > 만드 + 는)
- Modifying a Noun with a Verb in the Past Tense
So far, you’ve learned how to modify a noun with a verb in the present tense. Now, let’s look at how to modify it in the past.
To do so, you have to put “ㄴ/은” after a verb stem.
Verb Stem + ㄴ/은 + Noun
And you’ll get:
그 영화를 보는 사람 – A person who watches that movie (present) > 그 영화를 본 사람 – A person who watched that movie (past)
공부를 열심히 하는 학생들 – The students who study hard (present) > 공부를 열심히 한 학생들 – The students who studied hard (past)
책을 읽는 사람 – A person who is reading a book (present) > 책을 읽은 사람 – A person who read a book (past)
오지 않는 사람들 – The people who don’t come (present) > 오지 않은 사람들 – The people who didn’t come (past)
많이 먹는 아이 – A child who eats a lot (present) > 많이 먹은 아이 – A child who ate a lot (past)
나한테 전화한 남자 (past) – The man who called me
어제 밤에 운 아기 (past) – The baby that cried last night
* ”ㄹ” is also irregular in the past tense. To conjugate a modifying verb, we need to delete “ㄹ” and add “ㄴ”.
내가 만든 목걸이 – The necklace I made
So now we know that to modify a noun with a past verb, we need to add “ㄴ/은” to its stem.
However, when a verb has “있다/없다” in it, it follows a different rule. Let’s look.
Such modified past forms as “없은/있은” don’t exist.
Instead, you have to use these:
있다 > 있던 or 있었던
없다 > 없던 or 없었던
차가 없던/없었던 남자 – A man who didn’t have a car.
The usage of “~던” and “았/었던” will be explained in Intermediate 1 lesson.
- Modifying a Noun with a Verb in the Future Tense
You take a verb stem and put “ㄹ/을” after it.
Verb Stem + ㄹ/을 + Noun
Let’s look at examples:
할 일* – The things that I will do. (=things to do)
살 것* – The things that I will buy. (=things to buy)
*to not confuse the usage of “일” and “것”, both of them mean “thing.” But “일” is used when you talk about non-tangible things like situations or work, whereas, “것” is used for the tangible.
일어날 시간 – The time that I’ll wake up (=time to get up)
갈 곳 – The place that I will go to (=places to go)
(제가) 읽을 책 – Books I will read (=books to read)
먹을 음식 – The food that I will eat today (=food to eat)
제프가 사지 않을 것들 – The things that Jeff won’t buy
Present Tense: Verb (Stem) + 는 + Noun
*있다 and 없다 are used with “는”.
**ㄹ > you need to delete “ㄹ” and add “는”.
Past Tense: Verb Stem + ㄴ/은 + Noun
*”ㄹ” > deleted and “ㄴ” is added.
**있다 > 있던 or 있었던
없다 > 없던 or 없었던
Future Tense: Verb Stem + ㄹ/을 + Noun